Design and Implementation of a Dual Axis Solar Tracker Using Arduino Microcontroller


  • Ye-Obong Udoakah Universit of Uyo
  • Egwuchukwu Chukwu University of Uyo



Dual Axis Tracker, Solar Irradiation, Solar Panel, Stepper Motors, Tilt Angle.


Energy is pivotal to the human and capital development of any nation; hence, the ever growing quest to discover reliable and sustainable energy sources. Researches on renewable energy sources ranging from wind, tidal, hydro power and solar energy is on-going; all geared towards providing better electrical energy source. Solar energy, however, holds a very promising future as far as sustainable energy solution is concerned. It is silent, green, with zero negative impact to the globe and no pollution. Unlike the conventional energy sources from fossil fuel, it reduces greatly the impact of global warming and remains endless. The developed solar tracker has two automatic tracking axis for both the zenith daily and the azimuth annually as well as displaying in real-time solar irradiation and tilt angles on the mounted LCD. The self-controlled tracking is achieved by using a MEGA2560 microcontroller board, programmed to read analog values from an array of LDRs, convert them to digital values, compare them and drive the stepper motors in the desired direction until equal light is sensed by alternate LDRs. At this point, the panel is aligned perpendicular to the sun rays to capture the maximum possible energy. A working prototype is successfully designed and constructed. The testing revealed very precise tracking made possible by using micro-stepping modes of the stepper motors. This also gave a very high tracking accuracy of about ±0.0560.


Y. Udoakah and N. Okpura, "Determination of Optimal Tilt Angle for Maximum Solar Insolation for PV Systems in Enugu-Southern Nigeria," Nigerian Journal of Technology vol. 34, no. 4, p. 838, 2015.

A. Ingole, “Arduino Based Solar Tracking System,†International Satellite Conference on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development, 24-26 May, 2016.

C. Adrian and C. Mario “Azimuth-Altitude Dual Axis Solar Tracker,†(Project), Dept. of Elect. Engr., Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, 2010.

B. Lane, “The Potential System Benefits Of Simple Tracking solar System Using A Stepper Motor and Light Sensorâ€, (Project), Dept. of Elect. Engr., Cleveland State University, 2008.

P. Jyoti, A. Aditi and S. Shweta. “Design & Development of Bidirectional Solar Tracking System Implemented in Western Region of Maharashtra,†IOSR Journal of Engineering, vol. 3, no. 6, p. 01-05, 2013.

S. Sara, J. Anumol, K. Jithin, J. Joseph and J. Jitha, “Microcontroller Based Solar Tracking System and its Implementation.†International Journal of Engineering and Science vol. 34, no. 2, p. 32-38, 2014.

J. Okhaifoh and D. Okene, “Design and Implementation of A Microcontroller Based Dual Axis Solar Radiation Tracker,†Nigerian Journal of Technology, vol. 35, no. 3, p 584 – 592, 2016.

“The TB6600 Stepper Driver,†[Online]. Available: [Accessed November 2017]., “Datasheet,†[Online]. Available: [Accessed November 2017].

P. Vinodkumar and V. Vikas, “Design and Implementation of Microcontroller Based Automatic Solar Radiation Tracker,†International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, vol. 24, no. 3, p. 644-656, 2014.

I. Somtoochukwu, C. Tochukwu, P. Aguodoh and Egbosi K, “An Intelligent Sun Positioning and Intensity Tracker System for Solar Panels with LCD Display,†International Journal of Electrical Electronics & Computer Science Engineering, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 705-715, 2015.

A. Konar and A. Mandal, “Microprocessor Based Automatic Sun Tracker,†IEE Proceedings, vol. 138, no. 4, p. 237-241, 1991.

“Global Energy Network Institute,†Nigerian National Energy Grid. [Online]. Available:. [Accessed 01 06 2017].

T. Terry, “LCD Display with I2C Interface,†[Online] Available: [Accessed November 2017].

“Solar Panel Orientation,†[Online]. Available [Accessed May 2017]., “Tutorials,†[Online]. Available: [Accessed November 2017]., “Arduino solar tracker,†[Online]. Available: [Accessed November 2017].

“Wiring and running tb6600,†[Online]. Available: [Accessed November 2017].

Literature Distribution Center for on Semiconductor “Motors and Stepping Motor Control System,â€. [Online]. Available: [Accessed September 2017].

W. Vaijantee, J. Joel, and Prof. Lakshmipraba B. “Solar Tracking System.†International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. Vol. 4, no. 3, p. 1770, 2017.

M. Zeroual, M. Raoufi, Ankrim and A. Wilkinson, “Design and Construction of a Closed Loop Sun Tracker with Microprocessor Management,†International Journal on Solar Energy, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 685-691, 1997.

“I2C and LCD 1602 Schematics,†[Online]. Available: [Accessed October 2017].




How to Cite

Udoakah, Y.-O., & Chukwu, E. (2018). Design and Implementation of a Dual Axis Solar Tracker Using Arduino Microcontroller. ELEKTRIKA- Journal of Electrical Engineering, 17(3), 41–48.