Prototype Development of Paper Based Sensor for Ammonia Detection in Water
AbstractThe presence of ammonia in water supply can be dangerous to human health. This is because the ammonia not easily detected and the cost of the existing ammonia detector is quite expensive. The existing method of detection and monitoring of ammonia with chemical approach is time consuming, thus, electrical-based is recommended. The sensor device was developed in this project utilizing bio-environmentally friendly material such as paper and graphite. The different type of paper and graphite was used in this project to evaluate the sensitivity and selectivity of sensor. A suitable pattern was defined as the sensing area for detected the presence of ammonia in water. The device was connected with a constant voltage to generate the current flow through electrode that made of graphite and the sample was tested by drop onto the sensing area. As the result, the current changes were detected with presence of ammonia in water. A zinc oxide layer was proposed to be added at the sensing area for sensor enhancement. It is found that the presence of zinc oxide can improve the sensitivity of sensor by faster detecting the sample drop on the sensing area compare to the graphite with shorter time response characteristics.
International Organization for Standardization. Water qualityâ€”determination of ammonium. Geneva, 1984, 1986 (ISO5664:1984; ISO6778:1984; ISO71501:1984; ISO7150-2:1986.
Summary review of health effects associated with ammonia. Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency, 1989 (EPA/600/8-89/052F).
H. H. Dieter and R. Moller, â€œThe drinking water regulations, introduction and explainations,â€ Ammonium, pp. 362â€“368, 1991.
Liana, D. D., Raguse, B., Justin Gooding, J., & Chow, E. (2012). Recent advances in paper-based sensors. Sensors (Switzerland), 12(9), 11505â€“11526. https://doi.org/10.3390/s120911505
Mirica, K. A., Weis, J. G., Schnorr, J. M., Esser, B., & Swager, T. M. (2012). Mechanical drawing of gas sensors on paper. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 51(43), 10740â€“10745. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201206069
Kurra, N., & Kulkarni, G. U. (2013). Pencil-on-paper: electronic devices. Lab on a Chip, 13(15), 2866. http://doi.org/10.1039/c3lc50406a.
Martinez, A. W., Phillips, S. T., Butte, M. J., & Whitesides, G. M. (2007). Patterned paper as a platform for inexpensive, low-volume, portable bioassays. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 46(8), 1318â€“1320. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200603817
Carrilho, E., Martinez, Î’. A. W., & Î’, G. M. W. (2009). Wax Printing â€“ a Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-based Microfluidics, 81(16), 1â€“5. http://doi.org/10.1021/ac901071p.
Niarchos, G., Dubourg, G., Afroudakis, G., Georgopoulos, M., Tsouti, V., Makarona, E., Tsamis, C. (2017). Humidity Sensing Properties of Paper Substrates and Their Passivation with ZnO Nanoparticles for Sensor Applications. Sensors, 17(3), 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17030516.
TobjÃ¶rk, D., & Ã–sterbacka, R. (2011). Paper electronics. Advanced Materials, 23(17), 1935â€“1961. http://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201004692.
Siegel, A. C., Phillips, S. T., Dickey, M. D., Lu, N., Suo, Z., & Whitesides, G. M. (2010). Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates. Advanced Functional Materials, 20(1), 28â€“35. http://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200901363.
Khan, M. S., Fon, D., Li, X., Tian, J., Forsythe, J., Garnier, G., & Shen, W. (2010). Biosurface engineering through ink jet printing. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 75(2), 441â€“447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2009.09.032.
Gimenez, A. J., Luna-Barcenas, G., Sanchez, I. C., & Yanez-Limon, J. M. (2015). Paper-based ZnO oxygen sensor. IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(2), 1246â€“1251. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2014.2361780.
How to Cite
Copyright of articles that appear in Elektrika belongs exclusively to Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Penerbit UTM Press). This copyright covers the rights to reproduce the article, including reprints, electronic reproductions, or any other reproductions of similar nature.